In the United States federal criminal code, crimes are divided into two main categories: misdemeanors and felonies. The distinction is one of maximum punishment. A misdemeanor, according to federal law, is a crime punishable by five days to one year in jail regardless of the sentence imposed. Misdemeanors carry lower penalties than felonies, but higher than administrative infractions, such as tickets and municipal ordinances.
Under 18 U.S.C. 3559, the term “serious violent felony” means:
(i) a Federal or State offense, by whatever designation and wherever committed, consisting of murder; manslaughter other than involuntary manslaughter; assault with intent to commit murder; assault with intent to commit rape; aggravated sexual abuse and sexual abuse; abusive sexual contact; kidnapping; aircraft piracy; robbery; carjacking; extortion; arson; firearms use; firearms possession; or attempt, conspiracy, or solicitation to commit any of the above offenses; and
(ii) any other offense punishable by a maximum term of imprisonment of 10 years or more that has as an element the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against the person of another or that, by its nature, involves a substantial risk that physical force against the person of another may be used in the course of committing the offense.
Immigration laws categorize crimes differently. For example, a significant misdemeanor is a misdemeanor as defined by federal law (specifically, one for which the maximum term of imprisonment authorized is one year or less but greater than five days) and, regardless of the sentence imposed, is
an offense of domestic violence;
sexual abuse or exploitation;
unlawful possession or use of a firearm;
drug distribution or trafficking;
driving under the influence; or,
If not an offense listed above, is one for which the individual was sentenced to time in custody of more than 90 days; the sentence must involve time to be served in custody, and therefore does not include a suspended sentence.
Any time a non-citizen is convicted of two CIMT that did not arise from a single act of misconduct, the DHS will initiate removal proceedings. This is true even if the crimes are misdemeanors.
A misdemeanor theft conviction might be classified as a CIMT under the immigration law and is a ground of removal if it occurred during the first five years in the U.S. or if you committed two of them. The distinction between whether theft is a misdemeanor or a felony is dependent on the value of the cash or property stolen. Many states consider theft of up to $500 a misdemeanor and larger amounts to be a felony (larceny).
If you were convicted for a controlled substance violation (including paraphernalia), whether in the U.S. or another country, at any time after admission, you may be denied your Green Card renewal and you will go through removal proceedings.
This is true regardless of whether your state’s law classifies the crime as a misdemeanor. There’s an exception for a single offense involving possession for personal use of 30 grams or less of marijuana. Although possession of less than 30 grams of marijuana is not grounds for denial of your Green Card and removal, it is ground for inadmissibility.
Even if the sentence was for 90 days or less, USCIS specifically states that it retains discretion to determine that the crime was a significant enough misdemeanor. If your application is denied, you must consult with one of the best immigration lawyers.
Any time an alien is convicted of a misdemeanor crime there are potential criminal immigration consequences. Among these is the possibility that the Green Card renewal application will be denied.
Section 212 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) lists those classes of aliens who are ineligible to receive visas, for admission to the U.S., and the classes of aliens who may apply for waivers of ineligibility. Before an applicant can obtain a waiver for a nonimmigrant visa, the reviewing consular officer, or the Secretary of State, must recommend a waiver to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), which has ultimate authority to grant or deny the waiver.
If you are from another country, you may be confused about all the paperwork that is required in order to get the documentation that is required to make you legal so you can live and work in the United States.
These are complicated documents that must be completely accurately by a qualified law firm in order to ensure a smooth transition and the approvals that you need.
L-1 Visa is a non-immigrant visa that specifically enables companies to transfer their employees to U.S operations. This is a work visa that allows you to come to the U.S. and perform your duties with your company. You can apply for a green card, which gives you permanent residency, while you have an L-1 Visa.
If you choose to apply for a green card, your L-1 Visa won’t be in jeopardy and you can still leave the country while your application is being considered. The requirements for the L-1 Visa to Green Card application are complex, and there are some differences of note between the L1A and the L1B.
In order to qualify for an L-1 A Visa, you must be the manager or executive of a company for at least a year before coming to the U.S. If you have an L-1 B Visa, you are an intracompany employee with specialized knowledge.
With an L-1 B Visa, you will have to apply for labor certification in order to apply for a green card. Labor certification requires that your employer show there are no minimally required U.S. workers available to fill your position at their company.
An L-1 Visa offers “dual content”, which means you can continue to live and work in the U.S. as usual after you have applied for your green card. After you have worked in the U.S. for a continuous year you can opt to apply for a green card to stay in the U.S. permanently. It is wise to seek assistance when you are wanting to convert from an L-1 Visa to a green card. An expert is trained in how to properly complete the paperwork so the transition will go more smoothly.
Only U.S. citizens are allowed to live and work in the United States. U.S. citizenship can be acquired by birth in one of the 50 States (or U.S. territories), or by birth abroad from one or both U.S. citizen parents.
Those that are not U.S. citizens are allowed to enter the country if they have a Visa. There are two main categories of Visas: immigrant Visas and non-immigrant Visas.
The O-1 Visa is for aliens of extraordinary ability that are coming temporarily to the United States to work in their field of specialization for a sponsoring U.S. employer. The O-1 is one of the most sought Visa categories, because:
It is not subject to annual quotas
It can be used by J-1 Visa holders that are subject to the 2-yesr rule
No minimum salary is required by law
There is a low filing fee to be paid to USCIS
The processing time is much quicker than any other Visa
On the other hand, it is not easy to qualify for an O-1 Visa. First, the job must fit into one of the O-1 Visa categories, which are the arts, education, athletics, science, and business. Second, the foreign worker must have acquired national or international recognition in his or her field. There are several criteria provided by USCIS to prove national or international acclaim, and at least 3 must be satisfied.
These criteria include:
Receipt of a nationally or internationally-recognized award
Judging the work of others
Substantial recognition by peers
Membership in associations of distinguished reputation
Employment in a leading or essential capacity
Receipt of a high salary
Original contributions of major significance in the field
Other comparable evidence
Al Also, a peer consultation letter must be included in the petition. If the O-1 Visa is approved by USCIS, the foreign worker can go to a U.S. Consulate and apply for a Visa stamp. Once arrived in the United States, he or she will have to apply for a Social Security Number.
The O-1 Visa is granted for a period of 3 years. It can be extended for periods of 1 year at a time. It is a dual intent Visa, meaning that an application for permanent residency (Green Card) can be filed while the alien is in the U.S. on O-1 Visa status.
Generally, O-1 Visa holders can apply for the EB1 Green Card for extraordinary ability. This Visa is the best possible, and it allows self-sponsorship.
However, it is worth to note that the EB-1 petitions require much more evidence than O-1 Visa petitions, and that only the best immigration lawyers have sufficient experience with these kinds of Visas. It is estimated that USCIS rejects approximately 50% of the EB-1 petition received.
There are two types of border crossings which are of focus at this time.
The first involves the initial border crossing after approval for residency abroad at the U.S. embassy.
The second is the border crossing when returning to the U.S. from a trip abroad while a resident of the United States.
As to the initial border crossing, at the final interview, the consul will approve the application for residency and hand the investor a precious sealed envelope with the approval notice.
Along with the investor‟s immediate family, the sealed envelope must be presented to any Department of Homeland Security official at any approved port of entry such as at an international airport, seaport, or land post within four months of the interview.
The immigration officer will open the envelope, assess its authenticity and then stamp the passports of the entrants with a red I-551 stamp to demonstrate lawful entry into the U.S.
The actual residency cards will be received in the mail approximately three months thereafter, as they will be ordered to be manufactured, however the stamp will be valid for one year.
The second entry concerns those investors who have become residents of the U.S., however are either away for long periods of time or experience high frequencies of absence.
For individuals who fall into this category, it is essential that they carry an up to date binder with documents which demonstrate that they intend to remain residents of the United States.
Such documents include U.S. tax returns, real estate tax bills, current credit card charges, evidence of family continually living in the U.S., etc.
This „empowerment binder‟ will allow the officer to review the residency in a better light with regard to the intent of the green card holder to remain a resident of the U.S. Each investor should ensure that he or she retain a valid passport and a return airline ticket to the U.S.
The alien may engage in commercial transactions not involving gainful employment, such as negotiating contracts, litigation, recognition of foreign judgments, consulting with clients or business associates. He or she may also participate in scientific educational, professional, religious, or business meeting. He or she may receive no salary or remuneration other than payment of expenses incidental to his or her temporary stay.
B-2 visa: Visitor for Pleasure:
This category permits entry for tourism, social visits to friends or relatives, health purposes, social conventions, participation in amateur musical or sporting events with no remuneration.
F Visa for Students and Trainees
The applicant must have a foreign residence which he or she has no intention of abandoning, be a bona fide student qualified to pursue a full course of study, and seek to enter the United States temporarily solely for the purpose of studying at a recognized school. The applicant may study only at the school he or she designates and which has been approved. The applicant must have available sufficient funds and outside financial support to ensure he or she will not become a public charge or accept unauthorized employment. He or she must be proficient in English or receive training to make him or her proficient, intend to depart the United States at the conclusion of his or her studies, and be qualified to attend the particular institution.
All students are given permission to be in the United States for “duration of status,” that is for the period of time needed to complete the educational program plus 60 days. If a student does not leave the U.S. by the end of the 60 days, he or she may be charged with criminal contempt.
At the end of the course of study a period of work authorization may be requested for the purpose of gaining experience in the field of study, known as “practical training.” If qualified, the student may also change non-immigrant status to a temporary non-immigrant work visa or adjust status to a permanent resident visa.
Most people refer to the process of obtaining permanent residency status for immigration purposes as “getting a green card”. The green card is a card that is issued as proof that U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has granted its approval for you to be in the United States as a permanent resident. Once you have been issued a green card, or a permanent residency status, you can freely live and work in the U.S.
If you are a green card holder, you should keep in mind that your “LPR” represent your legal status in the United States; as long as you comply with the terms and responsibilities of your status and renew your green card on a regular basis, you are considerate a lawful resident.If you do not comply with the U.S. regulations, if you have been committed for a crime, and so forth, you could be removed from the country and be in need of a lawyer.
Voluntary departure is a form of removal viewed as an extreme option because it does not allow an alien to remain in the United States. Through a voluntary departure an alien can avoid the consequences of a formal removal order, which as opposed to the former, includes fines and temporary or permanent bars to re-admission in the United States.
If an alien was in the U.S. unlawfully, he or she may still be barred from re-entry for a number of years, even though the departure was voluntary.
If you have been granted voluntary departure, you must leave the U.S. within a period specified by an immigration judge. In same cases, there is a bond of at least $500 to ensure that the alien leaves during the assigned period.
Moreover, if voluntary departure is granted before the competition of removal proceedings, an alien must depart within 120 days. Instead, if the departure is granted at the end of removal proceedings, an alien must depart within 60 days. A non-citizen who fails to departure the U.S. within the time specified in the voluntary departure order becomes subject to civil penalties. A civil monetary penalty may range between $1000 and $5000.
Another consequence if you fail to depart the U.S. on time has to do with your chances of obtaining future U.S. immigration status. You will face an automatic ten-year bar from being granted cancellation of removal, adjustment of status, change of status, registry, and further voluntary departure.
The ten-year bar is probably the most severe consequence to failing to depart under a voluntary departure order. If a non-citizen fails to voluntarily depart, the voluntarily departure order becomes an order to removal. Aliens should only apply for an order of voluntary departure if they really intend to and are able to timely depart and satisfy any other conditions imposed.
Birth in the US – The 14th Amendment to the Constitution provides that anyone born in the US is a citizen of the US even if they hold dual citizenship. Therefore, children born in the US are citizens whether their parents are citizens, permanent residents, temporary visa holders or illegal aliens. The only children born in the US to whom this rule does not apply are the children of foreign diplomats.
Naturalization – In general, you must satisfy the five following requirements in order to become a citizen through naturalization:
Residency – Most persons must first attain permanent residence before applying for naturalization. The primary exception to this rule are persons who served in the U.S. armed forces during a period of hostilities designated by the President.
You must be a permanent resident for five years before becoming naturalized although the law permits you to apply for naturalization 90 days prior to completing the residency period.
If you are married to a US. citizen, you may be eligible for naturalization within three years if you have been married to a US citizen for three years, your spouse has been a citizen for the entire three-year period, and you are living in “marital unity”.
If you are a member of the US armed forces, you may be eligible to naturalize without any specific period of residence if you are a permanent resident, you have served on active duty for a period of three years or more, and you are serving honorably, or were given an honorable discharge. If you have been discharged, you must apply for naturalization within six months to take advantage of this rule.
If you are the spouse of a US citizen who is assigned to work abroad by the US government or by certain designated companies or organizations, residency rules may not apply to you.
Departure from the US for a period of six months or more creates a rebuttable presumption that you have abandoned your residency. A departure for one year or more creates a conclusive presumption (not subject to appealthat you have abandoned your residency. Some people who obtain Re-Entry Permits in order to exit the US for more than one year may preserve their residency but may still break their residency for naturalization purposes unless they take further steps to preserve it.
Stay of Removal Application – Stay of Removal Immigration – Motion to reopen
Deportation is the process of expelling a foreigner from the country.
As a non-citizen facing deportation, you may want to postpone removal while you attempt to get your case reopened or reconsidered. FEDERAL COURT STAY OF REMOVAL
Pursuant to INA 242(b)(3) and 8 U.S.C. 1252(b)(3), filing a petition for review of a removal order does not automatically stay the petitioner’ removal from the United States. However, the Courts of Appeals may issue a judicial stay of removal to prevent U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) officers from deporting a person while his/her petition for review is pending before the court.
A stay motion is filed with the Court of Appeals with jurisdiction over the petition for review of the removal order. An emergency stay motion is a motion that is presented in the Court without the normal “five business days notice” requisite. It is a special motion used for considering a decision quickly in order to avoid irreparable harm. An emergency motion provides immediate relief as the response is delivered quickly than a normal one by the court.
In the Third Circuit Court of Appeals (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware), an Emergency Stay response will be due within 7 days, with 3 days for a reply, if the motion requires expedited consideration. To the extent possible, clerk must be given advance notice by phone that an emergency motion will be filed.
Foreign nationals that want to visit the United States must obtain a visa from one of the U.S. Consulates unless they come from one of the visa-exempt countries or Visa Waiver Program countries. The same rule is valid for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, which are U.S. territories.
U.S. Visas were granted to 8.9 million foreigners visiting America and to 482,000 immigrants in 2012.
A Visa must be obtained unless an individual is
a citizen of a Visa Waiver Program country;
a citizen of Canada, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, or the Republic of Palau;
a British Overseas Territories Citizen from Bermuda or the Cayman Islands;
a citizen of the Bahamas;
a U.S. lawful permanent resident (Green Card holder).
There are different rules for Mexican citizens.
There are about 185 different types of U.S. visas, divided in two main categories:
Nonimmigrant visa – for visits of limited duration, such as business, employment or studies.
Immigrant visa – to permanently move to the U.S. At the port of entry, an immigrant visa holder is inspected and processed for a green card. Upon approval (admission stamp by a CBP officer) a stamp is placed on the foreign passport and it prove permanent resident status for 1 year.
In order to move permanently to the U.S., a foreign national must either have an immigrant visa or a dual intent visa, which is one that allows an immigrant to pursue permanent resident status while in possession of a temporary Visa. The H-1B Visa is the most common non-immigrant Visa allowing dual intent.
Coming to the U.S. on a work visa generally involves a 3-step process. First, the U.S. employer files a petition with USCIS requesting the Visa the best suit the foreign worker. If the employer’s petition is approved, it only authorizes the foreign worker to apply for a visa; the approved approval notice (Form I-797) is not an actual visa.
The worker then applies for a visa at a U.S. consulate abroad, and is usually interviewed in his native country. If the U.S. consulate approves the visa, the foreign national is then allowed to come to America. At the U.S. border, airport, or other point of entry into the country, the foreign worker is inspected by an immigration officer of the U.S. CBP office.
The L-1 visa or “Intracompany Transferee” is a non-immigrant visa, which allows companies operating both in the United States, and abroad, to transfer certain classes of employee, in the managerial, executive, or specialized knowledge, to U.S. subsidiaries.
Even though L-1 visa was created for large multinational companies, it allows a start-up foreign company, which does not yet have a U.S. subsidiary, to expand its business and services. With the aim of creating a branch or subsidiary, a skilled executive or manager may enter the United States to set up a new office and will be eligible for a maximum stay of one year.
The employee must have worked at one of the locations of the corresponding American company, for at least a year out of the last three.
There are two types of classification for the L-1 visa:
Managers and Executives: L -1A visa
L-1A visa is issued to people who have been employed for at least 1 out of 3 years, with managerial duties in a foreign corporate office. L-1A visa is granted for a period of three years, which can be extended for other two up to a maximum of seven years. L-1A creates a direct path to permanent residency.
Employees specializing Office: L- 1B visa
L-1B is designed for employees considered skilled people with “specialized knowledge” that is with an advanced level of knowledge of products, services, research, management, or procedures and its applications in international markets.
It has become progressively more difficult to obtain L-1 Visas. If you petition was denied, you have the option of filing an immigration appeal.
Some large multi-national companies that are frequent users of the L-1 preference establish in advance an intra-companies relationship, through the “L-1Blanket Petition Program“. The approval of a Blanket Petition does not warrant an official L-1 classification.
Spouses and children (unmarried and below 21 years of age) of the L-1 visa holders may seek admission through an L-2 visa, granted for the same period of residence of the worker. The spouse may apply for work authorization.
L-1 Visa holder must abide the conditions on their Visa. If they do not, they are subject to removal proceedings, which would require assistance of a defense lawyer.
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Unless you were born in the United States or were born abroad from one or two U.S. citizen parents, you need a Visa or a Green Card to live and work in the United States.
Even after you get a Visa, you must obey the rules and conditions of your status. You also have to maintain an outstanding record of good conduct and avoid criminal convictions.
Otherwise, you can be placed in deportation proceedings by the U.S. Government. A legal paper called Notice To Appear (NTA) will be served to you, and will explain you the grounds for removal.
If that happens, a New York Federal Deportation Lawyer must be retained as soon as possible. Several remedial measures can be taken to preserve your legal residency in the United States.
First, it is possible to contest the charges of removability while in immigration court. The U.S. government will be represented by a trial attorney, but they will have the burden of proving you are removable from the country.
Second, even if you are found to be removable, you may be able to apply for reliefs from deportation, such as a Waiver of Cancellation of Removal.
Finally, if you are ordered deported by an immigration judge, you can file an appeal with the Board of Immigration Appeals.
Prosecutorial discretion is the authority of an agency or officer to decide what charges to bring and how to pursue each case.
A law-enforcement officer who declines to pursue a case against a person has favorably exercised prosecutorial discretion.
The authority to exercise discretion in deciding when to prosecute and when not to prosecute based on a priority system has long been recognized as a critical part of U.S. immigration law. The concept of prosecutorial discretion applies in civil, administrative, and criminal contexts. The Supreme Court has made it clear that “an agency’s decision not to prosecute or enforce, whether through civil or criminal immigration proceedings, is a decision generally committed to an agency’s absolute discretion.”
Prosecutorial discretion may be exercised at any stage of an immigration case. Specifically, prosecutorial discretion may be exercised when deciding whether to: issue a detainer; initiate removal proceedings; focus enforcement resources on particular violations or conduct; stop, question, or arrest a particular person; detain or release someone on bond, supervision, or personal recognizance; settle or dismiss a removal case; stay a final order of removal; pursue an appeal; and/or execute a removal order.
Once an arrest is made, a prosecutor screens the case to determine if it should be prosecuted or dropped.
The decision to prosecute is based on the following factors:
the sufficiency of the evidence linking the suspect to the offense
the seriousness of the offense
the size of the court’s caseload
the need to conserve prosecutorial resources for more serious cases
the availability of alternatives to formal prosecution
the defendant’s culpability (moral blameworthiness)
the defendant’s criminal record
the defendant’s willingness to cooperate with the investigation or prosecution of others.
Prosecutorial discretion “programs” also exist, such as Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) and deferred action for domestic violence victims who are seeking a green card based on a relationship to a lawful permanent resident or U.S. citizen.
Immigration and Customs Enforcement, also known as ICE, exercises prosecutorial discretion because has limited resources and needs to use those resources carefully to meet its priorities. In addition, by exercising prosecutorial discretion, ICE can quickly close some cases that are less important and can save time and resources for important cases.
Receiving prosecutorial discretion can be not easy at all. Prosecutorial discretion does not give everyone who wants it an avenue for relief.
It is entirely normal for clients to inquire from any law firm how their legal fees are being expended.
As clients do not have the opportunity or sometimes the experience in working with a lawyer in the United States, this chapter will outline the type of work which a law firm should accomplish on a daily basis on your behalf as related to your matter.
While some cases may differ from others, most integrate the following services which are performed on your case.
As always, notwithstanding good intentions and hard work, results are always the key to any association.
You should be comfortable in the knowledge that the law firm you engage only accepts matters which are reasonably acceptable under current immigration laws of the United States.
The following are some, but not all, of the services that a U.S. law firm may render as applicable to your matter:
Private consultation at initial meeting
Case evaluation and determination
Form preparation and photocopy
Ffile preparation and presentation
Telephone communications with client, consul, and administration
Follow-up meetings and organization
Paralegal preparation of file, coordination, and supervision
Administrative preparation with government agencies
Consular precertification where applicable
Review of legal documents
Assembly of evidence
Corporate structuring where applicable
File follow-up after closure
Emergency on call service
Accounts verification on call
Family immigration planning and development Short-term and long-term immigration
Instant fax and email access planning
Coordination with government agencies where necessary
Communication with community leaders and contacts
Use of strategic alliances with specialist attorneys such as tax, patents and trademarks, real estate, or others
Calendaring of visa expiration or eligibility for U.S. immigration benefits
Development and use of professional relationships worldwide
Explanation of services and interaction in your mother tongue
File status report on call
Acceptance of payment by check, all major credit cards, wire transfer, or cash
On-site travel for client assistance where necessary
In light of the services to be performed, it is evident that retaining a U.S. attorney to assist you with your immigration case is essential.
You should be charged a reasonable fee according to the Fee Agreement for Legal Services.
The E-1 and E-2 Visa for the Status of Importer/Exporter and Investor.
The “E” visa will allow foreign citizens of designated countries to be eligible for the status of the E visa as importer, exporter or investor. In order to qualify as importer/exporter (E1) in the United States, a business person will have to trade goods or services and be able to manage the company.
At the present time, E1 visas are defined as the trading of goods and particular services such as banking services, financial services and within the airline industry.
However, the trading of goods and services has recently been extended with no specific restrictions as to type of goods or services, including the transfer of technology.
An individual can benefit from a non-immigrant E1 visa if:
1. He (or his company) are foreign nationals or a foreign corporate entity has at least 50% stock interest in the U.S. company. 2. He comes to the United States in order to transact multiple transactions (50% or more of gross volume of the U.S. company) between his home country and the United States; 3. He is involved in administrative operations or has specialized qualifications which are essential to the operations of the U.S. employer; 4. He leaves the United States upon expiration of his visa.
In order to qualify for an E2 investor visa, the investor must develop and manage the operations of a company in which he has invested or is in the process of investing a “sizeable” amount of money.
An E2 visa can be issued if it has been ascertained by the U.S. Consulate that:
1. This person is a foreign national or that his U.S. company has 50% or more foreign shareholders; 2. The U.S. company in which he has invested, will invest or has already invested a “sizeable” amount of money (generally greater than $100,000 of risk capital) in a real commercial business in the United States; 3. That person has been appointed to administer the company or possesses specific qualifications which are essential to the functioning of the company; 4. His investment is not his only source of income; 5. His investment is real or is imminently in the process of becoming a reality; 6. That person will leave the United States upon expiration of his visa (generally up to 5 years).
Importer/exporter or investor visas can be obtained in any American Consulate or Embassy in the world, normally in the country of the last residence of the applicant.
The E visa can be delivered to companies belonging to one individual investor or to multinationals. It is equally available for key personnel of companies which meet the investor requirements. Its approval time can vary, usually no greater than four months if there are no complications.
The E visas are generally issued for periods of 5 years and can be renewed indefinitely with Consular or State Department approval or revalidation.
They can be extended in the U.S. for 2 years by applying to the Immigration Service in the area where the head office of the company is located.
The importers, exporters and investors can live in the United States as long as they maintain their eligibility according to the requirements of the treaties.
Permanent residency, through use of the E-2 visa, is available only under very narrow circumstances and should be analyzed carefully before proceeding.
Having problems together with your immigration status? managing immigration law will be extremely complicated, usually requiring a specialised immigration law lawyer to handle your case.
If you are hiring an lawyer to handle immigration proceedings of any kind, it’s an honest plan to figure with an professional person that focuses on this field. while several general attorneys will offer legal facilitate for immigration services, only a few will offer the in-depth analysis and agency that an immigration law professional person will offer. the other reasonably professional person might not have the main focus and talent required to win your case.
A large concern once hiring immigration lawyer is their ability to remain on the newest immigration policies.
Immigration law changes often, usually changing into additional complicated.
Associate in Nursing professional person must sit up to this point on these changes to make sure that once fighting your case, they’re representing you with full information of immigration law. Thus, once yearning for lawyer as immigration professional person, it’s best to analysis whether or not the firm keeps a record of immigration law changes as proof that they will maximize effective illustration of their purchasers. Conjointly look to ascertain if the firm has membership within the yank Immigration Lawyers Association, as that’s usually an honest sign that the firm keeps up to this point with the newest changes in immigration law.
When deciding that immigration law professional person to rent, rummage around for a productive record within the specific space of immigration law within which you wish legal help. this could embrace family-based migrator visas, deportation or detention, employment-based visa petitions, or different special immigration petitions or comes. select a business firm that’s well-known for winning cases therein specific facet of immigration law.
The philosophy of the American government as far as admission is concerned, is that it must protect the American worker.
Only those who can contribute to the national economy, to the cultural interest or to the well being of the U.S. have the right to work in the UnitedStates. We are not referencing exceptional cases of refugees who are forced to flee their countries for political or economic reasons.
We will talk here about the “H” category as now redefined in the Immigration Act of 1990 as the “Employment Based First, Second, or Third Category”.
We know that those who wish to immigrate permanently to the United States must obtain a “Green Card”, which is essential in order to have the right to such permanent residency and to work.
Let us now look at options which give the lawful “right to work”.
The difference between the “H” visa and the “Employment Based Preference” is that the latter gives the right to permanent American residency whereas the “H” visa is temporary and is only valid initially for three years with a possibility for renewal for an additional two years.
This means that if you wish to work in the United States and you possess the required qualifications, you are eligible for an “H” visa as long as you retain your residence abroad.
The “Employment Based Preference” indicates a permanent relocation to the new U.S. residency.
The qualifications for the two categories vary greatly.
An “H” visa requires recognized talents whereas the “Employment Preference” requires exceptional talents which are out of the ordinary and which must be recognized by specialists in the profession.
For example, a singer who is well known in her city would be a possible candidate for an “H” visa, but unless she has had sustained fame nationally or internationally she may not be able to obtain an ” Employment Based Preference” to become a permanent resident.
Frequently in the field of immigration, interpretations are not always consistent. The same candidate for a visa may be simultaneously eligible for an “H” and/or for “Employment Based Preference”.
How can one prove that one has exceptional qualities?
By producing a file full of diplomas, certificates of competency, affidavits of specialists, articles from newspapers, and any documentation attesting to the expertise of the individual, the applicant is arming himself for positive reply.
Those who work in the artistic fields must present proof of publicity, advertising and especially engagement contracts.
In the case of union disputes or a strike, a certificate obtained ahead of time from the Department of Immigration will be postponed to a future date if the holder is not in the United States yet. It is the union which must decide to accept a non-American wishing to exercise a job which is controlled by the union; the labor certificate will only become valid if the union grants its consent.
The “Employment Based Preference” requires the offer to the foreigner of an existing job.
This offer can be made by a third party, by the individual himself if he has hired an American employee and maintains a going enterprise, or by the agent of a foreign artist. A labor certification is not required for the H category since it is a temporary visa (see exceptions noted in chapter one). Note, however, that a labor certification attestion (LCA) is required for the H1 visa.
The H visa has two major advantages. First, it allows the immediate family and support staff to accompany the beneficiary. It also allows you to hold on to the tax advantages of your country of origin in certain circumstances where you maintain direct, consistent and permanent ties to your home country. Note that there have been numerous changes to the immigration statute in connection with visas for those in the entertainment field and you are encouraged to review Chapter One for this purpose.
The EB-5 program is the result of a legislative effort to promote job creation and the infusion of foreign capital into the U.S. economy.
This structure was developed during a time when the U.S. economy was thriving and represented an underlying promise of continued strength.
However, this writing, in light of the restricted credit market and elevated unemployment rate, it is evident that the U.S. is in the midst of tumultuous economic times.
Unlike the financial strength that the U.S. exuded at the time that the EB-5 program was enacted, a new source of capital investment received through foreign investors, which will result in the development of numerous new employment opportunities for Americans, provides a promising opportunity for growth and redevelopment across the nation.
The EB-5 program provides a glimpse of hope to political leaders, developers, U.S. workers, and foreign investors alike.
The USCIS is actively engaged in the process and works diligently to continuously modify its regulations.
Together, with the various regional centers across the U.S., the USCIS is expanding its knowledge through the daily successes and challenges of the program.
Although Congress has extended the program numerous times, at present the EB-5 program is scheduled to sunset on September 30, 2012, Congress now understands that to ensure its continued success the program must receive a permanent extension to guarantee the security of duration and consistency.
This permanent extension is contemplated in the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Bill of 2010.
En este artículo encontrarás algunos consejos básicos de unAbogado de inmigración de New York para emigrar legalmente a los Estados Unidos de América
Para empezar tengo que comentar que Estados Unidos de América suele ser una de las primeras opciones de quienes desea emigrar a otro país.
Pero, primero nos tenemos que plantear.
¿Es realmente Estados Unidos el lugar ideal para emigrar? y
¿Cómo poder emigrar a los Estados Unidos legalmente?
A esa pregunta debo responder que Estados Unidos cuenta con un sistema político maduro, una economía diversificada y constantes avances en materia tecnológica.
Hay muchos motivos que ponen a los Estados Unidos de América entre las mejores opciones del mundo para emigrar.
En general, su economía es muy dinámica y esto te permite prosperar en gran medida si eres un gran trabajador o emprendedor por todas las oportunidades que Estados Unidos te puede ofrecer.
Al menos desde mi punto de vista personal, emigrar a USA es una opción muy inteligente si la comparas con la de emigrar a otros países desarrollados.
De todas formas, cualquier abogado de inmigración en Estados Unidos te matizaría los siguientes aspectos positivos de cara puedas tener en consideración cuando vayas a tomar tu decisión:
Históricamente Estados Unidos ha recibido numerosas oleadas de inmigraciónque ha convertido a la nación como la receptora mundial por excelencia de inmigrantes. Es la nación que más inmigrantes recibe en el mundo. Y gran parte de estas personas han emigrado a New York legalmente.
Desde sus orígenes, han promovido abiertamente la llegada de extranjeros como estrategia de crecimiento.
La superpoblación de extranjeros, muchos de ellos ilegales, ha endurecido las leyes de inmigracióny a creado una negativa percepción actualmente del fenómeno. Por esto mismo es muy importante estudiar bien cómo emigrar a Estados Unidos legalmente.
Quizás existan otras opciones interesantes en el mundo.
Pero desde mi humilde opinión, e independientemente de los problemas que pueda tener como cualquier otra gran nación, los Estados Unidos es una de las potencias más importantes en el mundo, y sigue siendo un ejemplo de libertad y democracia para muchas pequeñas naciones que ven a Estados Unidos como un ejemplo a seguir.
Si finalmente te animas a emigrar a los Estados Unidos, tienes que saber que podrás encontrar mucha información en español del mismo Gobierno de los Estados Unidos.
Emigrar a Estados Unidos legalmente no es más complicado que hacerlo ilegalmente.
Y es mejor no meterse en líos innecesariamente.
Ten en cuenta que es normal que las autoridades norteamericanas no quieran que seas estafado por mafias y que por supuesto, vengas legalmente a este país.
Pero, ¿Cuáles son los requisitos para poder emigrar a Estados Unidos?
La ley de inmigración en Estados Unidos enumera muchas y diversas formas de emigrar legalmente al país.
Una requiere el pago de una gran cantidad de dinero.
Otra, ganar una lotería de inmigración con un número de plazas muy limitadas.
Sin embargo, la mayoría de los inmigrantes toma uno de estos dos caminos:
Ser patrocinados por un ciudadano del país, quizás familiar o amigo.
Quizás por un empleador (en el caso de quienes posean una habilidad muy necesitada en ese momento en los Estados Unidos).
Existen ciertas profesiones muy técnicas que siempre se necesitan en cualquier parte, y las ingenierías por ejemplo o la de las ciencias de la salud suele ser algunas muy solicitadas en este país.
Pero esto no significa que con tener una carrera es suficiente.
Tienes que ser realmente muy bueno en tu profesión y se tiene que poder demostrar que en los Estados Unidos hace falta profesionales de esta rama profesional que no se están encontrando en el mercado laboral interior
Aun así, muchas empresas norteamericanas terminan subcontratando a empresas fuera de los Estados Unidos ciertos servicios que al final no son capaces de cubrir con la mano de obra interior simplemente porque no encuentran esos profesionales.
Existe cierta presión de las empresas de tecnología norteamericanas para que se amplíen los visados para profesionales cualificados que no consiguen localizar en el país.
Con lo que no es de extrañar que se termine aprobando con el tiempo cierto tipo de flexibilización en esta materia para poder ir a USA a hacer prácticas o realizar un periodo laboral a los Estados Unidos cuando se termine los estudios de especialización.
Pero la realidad ahora mismo es que el número de visados para profesionales cualificados es limitado.
Muy inferior a la demanda interior.
El asunto es que hay oportunidades interesantes para cualquiera que realmente quiera trabajar o emprender en los Estados Unidos.
Solo tienes que investigar un poco y, por supuesto, asesorarte de las personas adecuadas.
A continuación encontrarás algunos detalles sobre diferentes maneras de emigrar a los EE.UU. de manera legal:
– Emigrar a los Estados Unidos por medio de las relaciones familiares
La forma más fácil de emigrar a Norteamérica es conseguir ser patrocinado por un familiar directo, por ejemplo un cónyuge, que sea ya ciudadano de Estados Unidos.
En esos casos, la inmigración legal es prácticamente casi segura.
Aunque la aprobación por lo general requiere alrededor de un año.
– Emigrar a los Estado unidos por medio de una oferta de trabajo.
Puedes emigrar a los Estados Unidos si por ejemplo consigues una oferta de trabajo de una empresa de EE.UU.
Tendrás más posibilidades evidentemente si estás especializado en una profesión concreta o si por ejemplo tienes estudios universitarios, o también para un trabajo para el que los estadounidenses de la misma especialidad sean escasos.
Aquí es donde hay muchas posibilidades reales.
– Demostrando la ausencia de antecedentes penales
Si no tienes antecedentes penales, necesitarás una declaración de la policía que lo acredite.
– Por medio de una autorización médica
Con el fin de obtener la residencia permanente en los EE.UU., tendrás que completar un examen físico en una clínica aprobada por la Ciudadanía Estadounidense y Servicios de Inmigración.
– Emigrar a los Estado unidos demostrando disponer de apoyo financiero suficiente
Con el fin de inmigrar a los EE.UU., tendrás que probar que tienes acceso a suficiente dinero como para evitar caer en la indigencia.
– Como conseguir la ciudadanía en Estados Unidos
Una vez que recibas tu tarjeta de residencia permanente (“tarjeta verde”), tendrás que esperar varios años antes de poder solicitar la ciudadanía de EE.UU., si estás pensando tener esta nacionalidad en un futuro.
Recuerda que excepto los nativos norteamericanos, todas las personas que viven en este país son originarias directamente o por medio de sus antepasados de otras naciones.
– Ganado la lotería de visados.
El Programa de Inmigración de la Diversidad asigna 50.000 visados de residencia permanente al año para los inmigrantes procedentes de países con bajas tasas de inmigración a los EE.UU.
Estas visas se asignan a través de una lotería.
– Por medio del programa para inversores en el país.
Se ofrecen otras 10.000 visas de residencia permanente al año para quienes invierten un mínimo de 500.000 dólares en la economía del país.
Otras maneras de emigrar a los Estados Unidos adquiriendo la residencia legal
Respecto a las diferentes formas de emigrar a los Estados Unidos legalmente, de cara poder tener la residencia legal en el país, se expone a continuación todas las maneras como se puede emigrar:
Programas especiales de emigración a EE.UU.
El departamento de Estado de los Estados Unidos cada año ofrece un programa especial para inmigrantes indocumentados o que no hayan definido su situación legal.
Este programa principalmente consiste en adjudicar un total de 50.000 visas, para la residencia permanente, en forma aleatoria entre participantes.
Emigrar a Estados Unidos como estudiante.
Deberá buscar primero la institución educativa en los Estados Unidos donde desea realizar sus estudios.
Este tipo de visado es muy complicado de obtener hoy en día pues dependerá de otros factores adicionales para garantizar su aprobación.
Tengan en cuenta que estudiar en los Estados Unidos no es nada barato y a ese coste hay que añadir los costes de alojamiento y manutención.
Sin contar que el vivir en Estados Unidos como estudiante no te permite trabajar legalmente en el país.
Se requiere tener unos recursos económicos importantes y suficientes para poder emigrar a USA como estudiante durante el tiempo que dure los estudios.
Emigrar a USA como trabajador temporal.
Para personas que ocuparán una posición especializada, la cual requiere de una aplicación práctica y teórica de conocimientos que requiere haber completado un curso de educación superior en la universidad.
Debe tener un buen dominio del inglés y también contar con una empresa patrocinadora legalmente constituida en los Estados Unidos y con una operación de más de 5 años.
Las profesiones que todavía se buscan son: enfermeras certificadas, paramédicos, maestros y otras profesiones.
Emigrar a Norteamérica como refugiado o asilo político
Es el más usado por personas que viven en países que está considerados que están en conflicto o cuando sus vidas están en peligro.
Emigrar a U.S.A. por motivo de matrimonio o compromiso matrimonial.
Es muy complicado que el departamento de inmigración de los Estados Unidos lo acepte fácilmente pues hay que cumplir muchos procedimientos y condiciones.
Pero igualmente muchas personas consiguen su Green Card cada año porque simplemente se casan con un o una norteamericana.
Emigrar a Estados Unidos gracias a protecciones temporales TPS
Cuando un país experimenta una catástrofe natural o un conflicto armado y lo deja en situaciones muy precarias como para vivir decentemente o tener una calidad de vida aceptable.
¿Cuáles son los visados disponibles para trabajar o emigrar a los Estados Unidos?
El sistema de visas se divide en dos grandes grupos:
permanente (Green Card) y
Residencia permanente, “Green Card”
Su nombre oficial es tarjetas de registro de extranjeros o “Alien Registration Receipt Cards”.
Las “Green Cards” son entregadas únicamente a aquellos que se convierten en ciudadanos permanentes y otorgan el derecho de vivir y trabajar por el resto de sus vidas en Estados Unidos.
Se requerirá que el portador tenga una residencia permanente en el país.
Existe un límite reducido de la cantidad de “Green Cards” que se otorgan cada año.
Residencia temporal o visados para no-inmigrantes
Este extenso grupo de visas aplica para todo aquel que quiere entrar y permanecer en Estados Unidos de manera temporal.
Muchas de estas visas temporales, son otorgadas con relativa rapidez, consiguiendo aprobación en menos de una semana.
A continuación se ofrece la lista completa para poder visualizar todas las opciones que existen:
Visados para diplomáticos y funcionarios de gobierno en Estados Unidos
A-1 Diplomáticos: Para uso de embajadores o profesionales de carrera diplomática y sus familiares directos.
A-2 Funcionarios de gobierno: Para uso de otros funcionarios o trabajadores de gobiernos y sus familiares directos.
A-3 Personal de apoyo de embajadores y funcionarios de gobierno: Valido para todo el personal de apoyo o servicio (y sus familiares directos) del personal diplomático o de los gobiernos.
Visados para Visitantes para realizar negocios en Estados Unidos o como turistas
B-1 Visitante de negocios: Para uso de comerciantes o representantes de empresas que viajan para realizar transacciones de negocios, ventas, asistir a reuniones o conferencias, o que van en búsqueda de inversiones.
B-2 Visitante de turismo: Aplica para aquel que ingresa al país exclusivamente por vacaciones o viaje de placer.
No permite trabajar ni cursar estudios.
Según recientes modificaciones se redujo a un máximo de un mes (30 días) por estadía.
Visados para tránsitos en EE.UU.
C-1 Tránsito: Aplica para los extranjeros que harán toque en algún puerto de entrada de Estados Unidos, para continuar inmediatamente su viaje hacia otro país.
D-1 Tripulantes de aviones o barcos: Pilotos, azafatas, sobrecargos y marinos que requieren permanecer de manera temporal en Estados Unidos para partir, al breve tiempo, en el mismo avión o barco.
Visados para realizar Negocios o inversiones en USA
E-1 Tratados comerciales: Para personal de empresas que vaya a desarrollar comercio de importación y exportación entre Estados Unidos y el país con el que existe un acuerdo comercial.
E-2 Tratados de inversión: Para personal que vaya a desarrollar inversiones significativas en Estados Unidos por parte de una compañía del país con el que existe un acuerdo comercial.
Visados para Estudiantes en Estados Unidos
F-1 Estudiantes académicos o de idiomas: Para aquel que desea realizar estudios formales en una universidad, instituto de educación superior o escuela de idiomas.
F-2. Familiares directos de poseedores de visas F-1: Para quienes acompañan al estudiante durante el transcurso de su programa académico.
M-1 Estudiantes vocacionales o no académicos, diferentes a estudiantes de idiomas.
M-2 Familiares directos de poseedor de visa M-1.
Visados para trabajadores de gobiernos u organizaciones internacionales
G-1 Representantes de gobiernos en organizaciones internacionales: Valido para el representante principal del gobierno que se incorporará a un organismo internacional con sede en Estados Unidos, incluye a miembros de su personal y su familia directa.
G-2 Otros trabajadores de gobiernos en organizaciones internacionales: Representantes acreditados de gobiernos y sus familiares, que se incorporarán al trabajo de un organismo internacional.
G-3 Representantes de gobiernos que no pertenecen a organismos internacionales: Valido también para sus familiares directos.
G-4 Funcionarios de organismos internacionales y sus familiares
G-5 Personal de apoyo o servicio (y sus familiares directos) de todos los funcionarios poseedores de visas G.
Visados para empleados temporales en U.S.A.
H-1B Trabajador con conocimientos especializados: Para personas que vayan a trabajar en ocupaciones altamente especializadas. El solicitante deberá contar con al menos un título universitario o su equivalente en experiencia laboral.
H-2A Trabajadores agricultores temporales: Que viajan a Estados Unidos para cubrir puestos de trabajo en las cuales el Departamento de Agricultura ha determinado que no han podido ser cubiertas por trabajadores nacionales.
H-2B Varios tipos de trabajadores temporales: Que viajan a Estados Unidos a cubrir puestos de trabajos en las cuales existe escasez de trabajadores nacionales calificados.
H-3 Pasantes temporales: Que cumplirán un adiestramiento específico en una compañía estadounidense.
H-4 Familiares directos de poseedores de visas H.
Representantes acreditados de la prensa: que viajan a Estados Unidos a nombre de un medio de comunicación extranjero para trabajar en esta área específica.
Visados para realizar programas de Intercambio en Estados Unidos
J-1 Visitantes de intercambio que viajan para estudiar, trabajar o entrenarse como parte de un programa de intercambio.
J-2 Familiares directos de visitantes de Intercambio.
Q-1 Visitantes que participan en un programa de intercambio cultural.
Q-2 Familiares directos de poseedores de visados Q-1.
Visados para novios o novias de norteamericanos
K-1 Novio o novia de un ciudadano estadounidense que viaja al país con el propósito de contraer matrimonio.
K-2 Menor de edad o hijo soltero de un poseedor de visa K-1.
Visados para transferencias de personal entre compañías hacia USA.
L-1 Personal transferido de compañías, que trabajan en cargos de gerentes, directivos, ejecutivos o que poseen una habilidad o competencia especializada.
L-2 Familiares directos de poseedores de visa L-1
Visados para hijos de inmigrantes especiales
Visados dentro de acuerdos de la OTAN para viajar a EE.UU.
NATO-1, NATO-2, NATO-3, NATO-4 y NATO-5: Asociados al acuerdo de la OTAN y sus familiares directos que viajan a Estados Unidos bajo las previsiones aplicables.
NATO-6: Miembros de los componentes civiles de la OTAN y sus familiares, que acompañan a las fuerzas militares en misiones autorizadas bajo el acuerdo.
NATO-7: Personal de apoyo y empleados personales de los poseedores de visas OTAN, y sus familiares directos.
Visados para personas especializadas dentro de las Artes, las ciencias y el deportes
O-1 Personas con habilidades extraordinarias en el área de las ciencias, arte, educación, negocios o deportes.
O-2 Personal de apoyo esencial para los poseedores de visas O-1.
O-3 Familiares directos de poseedores de visas O.
P-1 Deportista o profesional del espectáculo, que cuente con reconocimientos internacionales. Incluye a su personal de apoyo esencial.
P-2 Profesionales del espectáculo para un programa específico de intercambio, reconocido por el gobierno de Estados Unidos.
P-3 Artistas y profesionales del espectáculo que viajan en grupo, para un espectáculo cultural típico.
P-4 Familiares directos de los poseedores de visas P.
Visados para representantes de iglesias y religiones reconocidas
R-1 Religiosos o trabajadores de grupos religiosos reconocidos.
R-2 Familiares directos de poseedores de visas R-2
Visados para realizar investigaciones legales en U.S.A.
S-1 Personas cuya declaración es crítica para investigaciones penales.
S-2 Personas que poseen información crítica para un juicio.
¿Cómo conseguir la tarjeta verde o Green Card para los demás miembros de su Familia?
La ley de inmigración permite que todo ciudadano americano pueda solicitar la residencia permanente o Tarjeta Verde para cualquier miembro de su familia.
En este sentido, cualquier solicitud realizada para familiares directos de cualquier ciudadano americano no estará sujeto a ninguna limitación de inmigración de ningún tipo.
Hay que tener en consideración que los familiares directos son únicamente:
Los hijos menores de 21 años.
Por otro lado, también se podrá solicitar la residencia permanente para otros familiares que sean cercanos.
Sin embargo, estas otras peticiones si que tendrán limitaciones por año.
Las diferentes categorías de preferencia familiar que se consideran son las siguientes:
Familia de Primera Preferencia:Hijos e hijas solteras de ciudadanos americanos y si los hubiere, sus hijos menores.
Familia de Segunda Preferencia:Cónyuges, hijos menores de edad, y los hijos e hijas solteros de 21 años como mínimo de residentes permanentes legales.
Familia de Tercera Preferencia:Hijos e hijas casados de ciudadanos americanos con sus cónyuges e hijos menores de edad.
Familia de Cuarta Preferencia:Hermanos y hermanas de ciudadanos americanos, sus cónyuges e hijos menores de edad, siempre que el ciudadano americano que lo esté solicitando tenga al menos 21 años de edad.
You are allowed to file an appeal if you think New Jersey Court has judged your civil case without legal considerations. The process is lengthy and intricate, and the assistance of an experienced appeals lawyer is crucial.
An appeal does not automatically make you eligible for another trial. The purpose of the appeal is to examine the minutes of the trial conducted earlier to see if anything was done unlawfully.
Cases in Which there is no Right to Appeal
If your case was decided by an arbitrator or referee (essentially, outside the court), and the jurisdiction to the arbitrator was conferred through mutual agreement between the parties, the case becomes ineligible for appeal.
If you don’t file a notice of appeal within 30 days of the original decision (20 days, in some cases), you lose your right to appeal
The appeal procedure is extremely time-sensitive. You must move quickly in order to get your case reconsidered by the court.
Filing the Appeal – The Process
Here’s the step-by-step process you need to follow in order to file your case for appeal. Consult an appeals lawyer to get assistance through these steps. Federal Appeals may have different rules.
1. The appeal needs to be filed within 30 days of the judgment.
2. You’ll need to submit an undertaking in the form of a bond or a certified check in order to halt the enforcement of the judgment.
3. Alternatively, you can acquire a stay order from the Appellate Term of the Supreme Court in order to halt the enforcement of the judgment.
4. Fill in the “Notice of Appeal” form and create two copies from it. Get one copy served to the opposing party by a process server (someone over the age of 18 and not involved with your case). The second copy will serve as your record for the appeal. The original document is to be filed with the court.
5. Pay the court fees for your appeal and notify the court clerks.
6. In addition to this, you’ll need to apply for the transcript of the minutes of the trial. If a Court Reporter was present during your trial, you’ll need to contact him/her for the transcript. The Court Reporter is legally allowed to charge a fee against the transcript.
7. In case the Court Reporter was not present during your trial, you’ll need to get the audio of your trial transcribed by authorized parties. You’ll need to submit a written request with the court clerk in order to obtain the original transcription of your case.
8. Read through the transcript, address any problems with the content and file your objections/amendments with the opposing party within 15 days of receiving the document.
9. Original copies of all communication between the two parties need to be filed with the court in addition to the Notice of Appeal. If you wish to provide additional supporting documents, you can do so by consulting the court clerk.
10.Once the final decision has been made by the court, it will be mailed to all involved parties on their stated addresses.
Are you a foreigner planning to settle down in the United States and become its citizen?
Then you must find an immigration lawyer in New Jerseyto advise you on what needs to be done. For an immigrant to settle down in any country it is vital for them to know all the legal nuances related to immigration. An immigration lawyer is the best person to give you advice and guide you in the right way for doing everything correctly. Your immigration lawyer will be your legal representative that will help you in settle down in a country.
Finding out an immigration lawyer to help you out is not at all a difficult process. The internet is the best source for you to find out the best and the most capable immigration lawyer in New Jersey. The internet is a storehouse of information and it is all up to you to make use of the information in the best possible way.
You can search for immigration lawyers from a lawyer directory. Also you can find a good immigration lawyer in New Jersey by talking to people who have already used the services of the lawyer. Make sure you hire the services of the best immigration lawyer in New Jersey.
There are many issues that need to be taken care of when you want to immigrate to United States. Some of the issues that need to be taken care of are legal rights of immigrants, duties of immigrants and obligations if there are any for immigrants. The work of the immigration lawyer is to basically make their clients naturalized citizen of the United States. It is the duty of the lawyers to make sure that their clients are fully aware and have complete knowledge about what they are supposed to do, what they are not supposed to do and what rights they have in the country as immigrants residing there.
It is not an absolute necessity to hire the services of lawyer, but it always better to hire lawyer’s services so you can have a clear picture about your rights and duties. Also a lawyer will be able to tell you exactly what legal rights you have and what things you need to do. Basically the lawyer will be able to help you out with everything legally related to the issue of immigration. It is always better to have a good knowledge about all the legal aspects related to immigration.
Immigration laws keep changing and are complicated. So it becomes all the more important for immigrants to seek the services of an immigration lawyer. Immigration lawyers keep updating themselves constantly about all the changes that are being made in the immigration law in the United States.
The immigration lawyer will ensure that you are never caught unaware about anything related to your immigration to the United States.
If you are serious about settling down in United States and becoming a naturalized citizen, you will feel secured and comfortable due to the presence of an immigration lawyer. You will be able to know and deal with any legal obstacles with the help of your immigration lawyer. If you encounter any legal problem that lengthens the process of immigration, your lawyer will always there to help you out of the situation.
Italian family law has seen many reforms in recent decades. For example, law permits abortion since 1978 but, from the other side, same-sex marriages are still forbidden.
Among the principles expressed in the Italian Constitution of 1948, the Article 31 says that:
“The Republic assists, through economic measures and other provisions, in the formation of the family and the fulfillment of its duties, with particular regard for large families.
It protects maternity, infancy and youth, promoting the institutions necessary for such purposes.”
Moreover, in the article 29 we can find that:
“The Republic recognizes the rights of the family as a natural society founded on matrimony. Matrimony is based on the moral and legal equality of the spouses within the limits established by law to guarantee the unity of the family.”
Marriage is the fundamental requirement to grant families full protection in particular to children. Notwithstanding, the Republic protects children born out of wedlock and their mothers.
The number of unmarried couples has increased dramatically and the necessity of granting them some form of protection has become irrefutable. However, over 75 per cent of Italian weddings are performed in churches.
The Italian Civil Code, the procedural code and the related statutes regulate civil and religious marriages, annulment, separation and divorce. It is a complicated document that can only be interpreted by a good Italian Lawyer.
Catholic marriage requires both parties to be baptized and confirmed Catholics, as well as to attend the pre-matrimonial course. Couples must choose between shared or separate ownership of their worldly goods in the event of divorce. So pre-nuptial agreements in Italy should also be dealt with careful consideration.
The legal separation in Italy is temporary and does not break up the marriage, but divides the legal communion. Italian divorce is the legal dissolution of the bonds of matrimony.
Divorces are complex issues in Italy and have been possible only since 1970. The marriage should have taken place in Italy or one of the spouses should be Italian or an Italian resident. Sometimes foreign law may take precedence over Italian law even if one of the spouses is Italian. Couples divorcing by consent generally wait three years to be divorced but contested divorces must wait five and even cost many thousands of euros. A judge usually offers the spouses either to reconciliate or to formally separate for one year.
The mother is usually given the custody of the children, with access for the father. Once the children reach the age of ten, they can decide which parent they want to live with.
T<span “=”” style=”line-height: 14.95px;”>heHague Conventionof October 25, 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, a multilateral treaty that provides children the protection from the harmful effects of abduction, entered into force in Italy with the law No. 64 of January 15, 1994 (Implementation Act of the European Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Decisions concerning Custody of Children and the Hague Conventionon the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction of October 25, 1980).
Following ratification, the Convention entered into force in Italy on May 1, 1995. The Central Office for Juvenile Justice at the Ministry of Justice has been designated the Italian Central Authority.
An Italian law firm is often necessary for both types of divorce and every kind of legal family issue, as well as all the related to children adoption, abduction, custody, and so on.
In the United States, illegal immigration refers to the act of foreign nationals violating American immigration policies and laws through the entering or remaining in the country without receiving proper authorization from the Federal Government.
The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), amended by the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRAIRA) determine removal proceedings whether a non US citizen, or alien, should be deported, sent back to his home country, from the US.
The deportation process usually begins with the Department of Homeland Security issuing a Notice to Appear (NTA). Deportation can occur as a result of an immigrant being convicted of a criminal act; in lieu of incarceration, that individual may be given the option of expulsion from that particular country or nation.
The Notice to Appear states your name and the country in which you were born and it orders you to appear in front of an immigration judge. Moreover, it provides you with other information such as:
the reason why you’ve been ordered to appear;
how you allegedly broke the law;
your right to have an attorney;
the consequences of your failure to appear at the hearing.
You are then scheduled to attend a hearing before an immigration judge. An attorney represents the government at these hearings; you can also have legal representation of an immigration lawyer, but it must be “at no expense to the government.”
If the judge determines that you can be deported, you can apply for relief from removal. If you are eligible, another hearing will be held.
Business litigation involves business clients in disputes in business transactions or relationships, with other businesses, government entities, or groups of individuals. Business entities involved in business litigation are partnerships, limited liability companies, sole proprietorships, holding company, joint venture, corporation, or business trust. Parties may include consumers, businesses, shareholders, or employees. As an example, an investor suffering from excessive financial loss as a result of unethical behavior by a broker, may pursue business litigation.
Often business disputes can’t be resolved through negotiation or arbitration proceedings. So business litigation is a way to remedy the situation. Business litigation is a complex area of law which includes a variety of contractual and tort claims. Examples of claims, requiring counseling and handling include but are not limited to:
tortious interference with contract
internet law disputes
breach of contract
partnership or insurance disputes
privacy and data security
unfair and deceptive trade practices
breach of fiduciary duty.
Business litigation does not mean that a lawsuit has to be filed in Court, but can take place outside the bounds of the courtroom.
An attorney specializing in national and international business litigation with a considerable experience managing and resolving class actions in many areas, will counsel you. He will be able to save you or your company a significant amount of money by seeking a resolution through mediation, arbitration or other means of alternative dispute resolution.
After a successful completion of a two-year pilot program, the Business Litigation Session of the Superior Court (BLS) was launched in 2000. The BLS, a permanent session of the Superior Court, offers a forum for business and commercial disputes, benefiting from individualized case management. The BLS is made up of two full time sessions committed to the efficient resolution of business disputes or other complex cases. The Business Session was extended including cases from Suffolk County, Essex, Middlesex and Norfolk Counties.
A regional center is normally created and operated by experienced developers or business people who seek to begin or expand existing businesses.
It is therefore essential for you to receive and assess their credentials and their ability to ensure that the project will be so created and that the job creation requirement will also be fulfilled as a result of the program.
Although the USCIS oversees the overall EB-5 program, investors must be aware of the limitations pertaining to each and every regional center in order to make a qualified judgment.
As the number of USCIS approved regional centers continues to increase at a rapid pace, it becomes ever more difficult for an investor to make a well-informed decision.
Our recommendation is for each investor to visit and interface with no less than six regional centers before finalizing an investment decision.
A credible certified public accountant or EB5 attorney may be able to refer you to qualified professionals within the EB-5 field and/or offer assistance while you are weighing the options available to you.
Be sure to review and analyze all reports exhibiting the actual and projected cash flow for the regional center.
If possible, speak with other investors, request the regional center‟s scorecard as to their success rate, and try to assess the mix of nationalities in the program.
Additionally, it would be beneficial to review the developer‟s overall history both in a general business context and EB-5 specific projects.
A positive determination is if the developer has standby credit for the erection of any new project, backup plans, and exit strategies to be applied as needed.
Clearly, the sponsor must not have a criminal record or any evidence of prior bankruptcies. In addition to discussions with the principal sponsor, the investor should engage the services of partners, development and management personnel, and other service providers who are hired to support the project in its entirety.
All parties and entities are subject to your review before finalizing your investment.
Do not rely solely on the terms and conditions of an escrow agreement to have the funds returned in the event that the project does not materialize.
If you commit a crime, you will be prosecuted and tried by a State Court, unless you committed a crime punishable by a Federal statute.
Federal offenses have very severe sentencing guidelines. Moreover, over 90% of the federal criminal cases result in a conviction.
A Federal Defense Lawyer in New York can help you protect your rights since the day at the arrest to the jury trial. The fact that you have been arrested and charged with a crime does not mean automatically that you are guilty.
Before trial the Federal Government will have to disclose all the evidence that they have against you, such as witnesses, photographs, videos, and other forensic evidence. Then, your attorney can make motions to suppress evidence that was obtained unlawfully and exclude the testimony of witnesses that would be more prejudicial than probative at your trial.
To get convicted, the U.S. Government will have to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that you are guilty of the offense charged. All of the 12 members of the jury must agree that you are guilty. If a reasonable doubt as to your innocence exists, you must be acquitted.
The Writ of Habeas Corpus from the latin “you have the body” also known as “the Great Writ”, is a Court order to a person (prison warden) or a government official who has restrained a prisoner. As stated in the U.S. Constitution, in Article I “The writ of Habeas corpus is the remedy to be used when any person is restrained in his liberty. It is an order issued by a Court or judge of competent jurisdiction, directed to anyone having a person in his custody, or under his restraint, commanding him to produce such person, at a time and place named in the writ, and show why he is held in custody or under restraint”.
The Habeas corpus concept was first expressed in the Magna Charta and first used by the common-law Courts in 13th and 14th century England. The writ was made available in the U.S. Federal Court to state prisoners through the Habeas Corpus Act of 1867.
The rights of the writ of Habeas corpus are grantedin the U.S. Constitution in Article I. Section 9, Clause 2 states that “The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it”. The U.S. Constitution forbids Government from suspending proceedings for Habeas except under extraordinary circumstances such as during times of war. The clause was appealed in 1861 when President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ and authorized his Civil War generals to arrest anyone they thought to be dangerous.
The individual being held, or his/her representative, can petition the Court against the State or Federal agent. Petitions are usually filed by people serving prison sentences and authorized by statute in Federal Courts and all State Courts.
The writ must be in writing and must name the custodian as the respondent. Sometimes the convict is given the opportunity to present a short oral argument in a hearing before the Court, to establish evidence for the petition. The habeas petition must show that the Court ordering the detention, made a legal or factual error.
The writ of Habeas corpus is technically a procedural and extraordinary remedy and it is mainly used as a post-conviction help for State or Federal prisoners.
Federal Courts grant writs of Habeas corpus only when serious constitutional violations have occurred.
It gives a Court the power to release a prisoner and is a guarantee against any illicit detention. On the contrary, it does not necessarily protect other rights, such as the entitlement to a fair trial. The writ gives prisoner the right to ask an appellate judge to set them free or order an end to improper jail conditions. If the prisoner argues successfully that the incarceration is in violation of a constitutional right, the Court may order the prisoner’s release.
The writ of Habeas corpus was created to safeguard citizens against unjustified imprisonment. Federal courts expanded Habeas relief to include a broader definition of “custody” than mere arrest, including most faults found at trial. The current use of Habeas corpus includes cases involving extended detention of illegal immigrant or lawful permanent residents convicted of a crime, and the best immigration lawyers can use it to attack the collateral consequences of a criminal conviction. The writ is also available to civilian and military prisoners claiming jurisdictional barriers to their continued detention or incarceration.
The writ of Habeas corpus is used by the attorney of a detainee to establish that the detention is illegal, so the Court may order the police to justify the detention. The detainee may be released on bail if the police fails to convince the court of the need for the continuation for his or her detention.
While many investors may seek to enter a specific regional center as a participant, they may find that their personal situation prevents them from doing so.
To start, the investor must demonstrate that he or she has a net worth of $800,000 or greater.
This may include cash, real estate, investments, their personal residence, and the like.
The individual must also be able to provide the last five years of tax returns from their home country or at least demonstrate a clear source of funds and path of funds.
The investor and their family must have no basis for ineligibility, which would include
NO criminal record of any serious nature that would prevent a consul from accepting the application after the I-526 has been approved.
All of these issues are normally addressed in the regional center‟s initial investor accreditation questionnaire which must be completed and reviewed by their counsel to ensure entry into the regional center corporate structure.
Investing in a regional center is similar to joining a private club: there are rules and regulations to ensure the success and happiness of all members.
You must also assess your fluency and ability in reviewing extensive legal documents such as securities documents, business, marketing, and economic plans, and other documents which the regional center may offer you to review.
The U.S. immigration law is neither logical nor precise because the immigration department must adjust to international political as well as economic pressures.
Moreover, there are always new developments in this field. We will tell you about several cases which required litigation and how they were settled. They illustrate the situation as it presents itself now in the U.S.
Let us take the case of Maria. During eight years, she worked as an administrative assistant of a company. She speaks English, Spanish, Portuguese and French fluently.
Having applied for an H-1 visa, the official responsible for her file turned down her application on the basis that her professional reputation had not been sufficiently well established in order to receive a visa.
The Appeals Court reversed the official’s decision alleging that her long experience and her qualifications, as compared to those of others, were sufficient in order to grant her an H-1 visa.
Let us now study the case of a couple which was going to be deported following a decision by the Appeals Court.
The woman was pregnant and the child was born after the trial.
The birth of the child, although it did not represent a decisive fact, allowed the judge to reconsider the decision rendered and to decide to re-open the procedures for further consideration.
At the age of sixteen Anna came to the United States as a tourist from her home country having a B-2 visa. Thirtysix days after her arrival, she decided to study in the United States. Being only sixteen years old she went to the Department of Immigration in order to fill in an I-20 (and I-506) application form in order to transform her visa from tourist to student F-1.
The official decided that because her application had been made so quickly after she had entered the United States she had the preconceived intention to become a student as soon as she arrived to the U.S.
When an appeal was made, the district director decided that she had no pre-conceived intention because of her age, the duration of her stay (36 days) and encouragement from her family.
So she was able to obtain her visa and pursue her studies.
Mr. Zett was the beneficiary of an L-1 intracompany visa.
The court decided that the foreign company making the request did not necessarily need to conclude international transactions, did not require exclusive and absolute control of the subsidiary nor had a high proportion of properties and management in common with shareholders.
From a visa perspective the beneficiary is eligible to be considered for an L-1 visa as long as he or she is employed by the foreign company even though he or she may have shares in both the U.S. and foreign companies which are by law considered to be separate legal entities.
In a case involving the L-1 visa the beneficiary was sent to the U.S. by a foreign company. While being employed by the U.S. company and with its knowledge, he pursued specialized courses in the United States. During weekends he established an office at his home in order to take care of company contracts during his spare time.
At the end of his studies, the company decided to keep him in the United States and requested an L-1 visa for him.
The official decided that because of the fact that he was present in the United States for his studies, he had therefore not been employed during the past year by the company which was applying; in consequence he was not eligible for the visa.
This decision was reversed by the regional commissioner who alleged that these studies for specialization did not constitute an interruption of his employment by the company which, had the intention of establishing its head office in the United States.
In New York, over twenty percent of residents are foreign-born. Many of them are non-citizens who may be easily subject to detention and deportation for criminal convictions. Immigration crimes face very arduous opposition in Federal Court.
Crimes may involve anyone who facilitate illegal immigration. Even lawful permanent residents may be removed, arrested, or denied naturalization.
Federal criminal charges implicate complex procedures and trials. Understanding the broad immigration consequences of a conviction for a non-U.S. citizen requires a special knowledge and the ability to see and asses the case from many angles.
Immigration crimes usually include illegal entry or re-entry and marriage fraud. The hardest consequences you could face for them, are: denial of naturalization, bar to re-entry, and removal.
If you enter the United States illegally, crossing land or sea borders without authorization by an immigration officer or without a visa issued at a consulate, you commit an EWI, Entry Without Inspection. The law will require you to leave the U.S. and ask for help in a consulate abroad, where you will be assessed for your eligibility to receive a visa.
In addition, pursuant to the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), an individual who is unlawfully present in the United States for more than 180 days but less than one year, will not receive a visa to the United States during a period of three years (Three-year ban).
A person unlawfully present for more than a year, will not get a visa for a period of 10 years (Ten-year ban).
An alien living in the U.S. for more than one year, who is removed or have left the United States and then tries to commit unlawful re-entry, will receive a permanent prohibition of entry (Permanent ban). People sentenced in Federal Courts for unlawfully re-entry, usually receive a two years prison sentence.
Marriage fraud occurs when the marriage is contracted under false pretenses, in order to avoid the immigration laws of the United States. As a matter of fact, immediate relatives of a U.S. citizen, may obtain permanent residency or even the Green Card. Marriage fraud is a federal felony offense that carries serious punishments and immigration consequences. The Immigration Marriage Fraud Amendments Act of 1986 amended section 1325 by adding 1325(c), which provides a penalty of five years imprisonment and a $ 250,000 fine for any “individual who knowingly enters into a marriage for the purpose of evading any provision of the immigration laws”. Moreover, the alien may be removed from the United States and he/she will not be allowed to get any future visa or the Green Card .
The United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is authorized to cancel any citizenship or naturalization certificate in case that it was illegally obtained or created by fraud.
The United States Sentencing Commission (USSC) was established in 1984 to create sentencing guidelines for the Federal Courts and recollecting data on federal criminal cases convicted under the Federal sentencing guidelines.
If you are facing federal charges, it is critical to consult with an experienced criminal attorney as soon as possible. Your criminal defense lawyer has to handle your case properly preventing immigration problems. He/she will be able to achieve the best possible outcome in a given case.
It doesn’t matter what you have been charged with, whether a misdemeanor or felony, DUI or traffic ticket – you need acriminal defense lawyer. If you had a broken bone you probably wouldn’t operate on yourself, you would need a doctor. By the same token, if you’re going to court for a criminal immigration offense – you need a lawyer.
Issues in Employment
Issues in employment are the most trying for the employee. There are several problems that may arise in the employment relationship which I am adept at helping employees to resolve with their employers. The most common employment related accident is the personal injury that results in a Worker’s Compensation claim. Additional work related problems are discrimination in the hiring or promotion process, wrongful discharge, sexual harassment and wage and hour problems, etc.
Worker’s Compensation is insurance employers are required to carry, which protects the employee from financial loss due to injury caused in the workplace. Employees can recover under worker’s compensation even if their own unsafe act at work contributed to the accident. For example, an employee can recover for the loss of an eye, even though that loss was due to the employees own failure to wear safety glasses. Of course, disciplinary action can possibly take place for that unsafe act, but such action does not affect the employee’s ability to be compensated for the accident. I recommend that employees who are injured on the job cooperate fully with their employer during the investigation and treatment process following an injury, but I also recommend that the employee consult an attorney prior to signing documents the company presents after the accident or during the settlement process.
Employment Discrimination can occur in many ways. Typically, it can be shown through the employer treating one class of persons differently than another. For example a company cannot consider age, race, color, gender, religion or disability in the hiring process. Additionally, the company cannot implement policies that tend to discriminate against a certain class. For example, an arbitrary lifting requirement of 100 lbs. tends to discriminate against women, so the company will have to show that the operation requires such a rule and that no accommodation is available. There are many tricky issues in the employment discrimination area, so it is best to consult an attorney if you feel you are being treated differently than others due to your class membership.
Sexual Harassment is not always an obvious act such as a supervisor offering desirable job assignments if the employee will sleep with him. It can also be shown if the environment created is offensive or hostile. Sexual comments, lewd jokes, etc. can help create such a hostile environment. Employee do not have to put up with such a workplace environment under any circumstances. Unfortunately, employees often have to resort to legal action to put an end to the activities causing the hostile environment.
Title 18, United States Code, Section 1543 makes it illegal for anyone to make, forge, counterfeit, mutilate or alter any passport with the intent that it be used. It also criminalizes anyone who uses or attempts to use any such passport.
Fraudulent passports pose a significant risk because they can be used to conceal the true identity of the user and potentially facilitate other crimes, such as international terrorism and drug trafficking. There are many different reasons a person might commit passport fraud. Some use passports to enter a country illegally in order to work or take up residence.
People on the run from law officials may use fake passports to avoid detection while traveling. Fake or illegally obtained passports are also used by people trying to get into a country for the purpose of perpetrating crime, such as terrorist acts or drug smuggling.
In the United States, the crime is a federal felony as well as a criminal immigration law violation, and may result in a minimum prison sentence of ten years, a $250,000 fine, or both. If the fraud involves trafficking in narcotics, the penalty increases to up to 15 years in prison. If international terrorism is involved, the penalty is up to 20 years. Additional charges will be imposed if the person is caught engaging in any of these activities.
If you have been accused of passport or any other immigration fraud, you should hire a lawyer immediately.
Immigration to the United States is not totally determined by shifts in flow that occur as a result of lawmakers revising the allocations.
Immigration to the United States plummeted in the middle of the 20th century largely as a result of factors brought on by the Great
Depression and World War II.
There are a variety of “push-pull” factors that drive immigration.
Push factors from the immigrantsending countries include such circumstances as civil wars and political unrest, economic deprivation and limited job opportunities, and catastrophic natural disasters.
Pull factors in the United States include such features as strong employment conditions, reunion with family, and quality of life considerations.
A corollary factor is the extent that aliens may be able to migrate to other “desirable” countries that offer circumstances and opportunities comparable to the United States.
Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics, multiple fiscal years. Aliens legalizing through the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 are depicted by year of arrival rather than year of adjustment.
The annual number of LPRs admitted or adjusted in the United States rose gradually after World War II, as Figure 1 illustrates.
The DHS Office of Immigration Statistics (OIS) data present those admitted as LPRs or those adjusting to LPR status.
The growth in immigration after 1980 is partly attributable to the total number of admissions under the basic system, consisting of immigrants entering through a preference system as well as immediate relatives of U.S. citizens, that was augmented considerably by legalized aliens.19
The Immigration Act of 1990 increased the ceiling on employment-based preference immigration, with the provision that unused employment visas 19 The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 legalized 2.7 million aliens residing in the United States without authorization.
In addition, the number of refugees admitted increased from 718,000 in the period 1966-1980 to 1.6 million during the period 1981-1995, after the enactment of the Refugee Act of 1980.
Many LPRs are adjusting status from within the United States rather than receiving visas issued abroad by Consular Affairs before they arrive in the United States.
In the past decade, the number of LPRs arriving from abroad has remained somewhat steady, hovering between a high of 481,948 in FY2012 and a low of 358,411 in FY2003.
Adjustments to LPR status in the United States have fluctuated over the same period, from a low of 244,793 in FY1999 to a high of 819,248 in FY2006.
As Figure 2 shows, most of the variation in total number of aliens granted LPR status over the past decade is due to the number of adjustments processed in the United States rather than visas issued abroad.
In any given period of United States history, a handful of countries have dominated the flow of immigrants, but the dominant countries have varied over time. Figure 3 presents trends in the top immigrant-sending countries (together comprising at least 50% of the immigrants admitted) for selected decades.
The figure illustrates that immigration at the close of the 20th century was not as dominated by 3 or 4 countries as it was earlier in the century.
These data suggest that the percountry ceilings established in 1965 had some effect.
As Figure 3 illustrates, immigrants from only three or four countries made up more than half of all LPRs prior to 1960.
By the last two decades of the 20th century, immigrants from seven to nine countries comprised about half of all LPRs and this pattern has continued into the 21st century.
Although Europe was home to the countries sending the most immigrants during the early 20th century (e.g., Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary, and the United Kingdom), Mexico has been a top sending country for most of the 20th century and into the 21st century. Other top sending countries from FY2001 through FY2010 are the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Colombia and Cuba (Western Hemisphere) and the Philippines, India, China, South Korea and Vietnam (Asia).
Let‟s take this time to clarify the various US governmental agencies associated with the program.
To begin with, there is the United States Citizenship and Immigration Service or USCIS, which is at the forefront of the EB-5 field. This agency is charged with the review and approval of all regional centers across the United States from its headquarters in Laguna Niguel, California.
It is also responsible for the review and determination of all petitions for conditional residency with the filing of a form called the I-526-Immigration Petition by Alien Entrepreneur.
This essential, yet seemingly simple form will be discussed in future chapters.
Upon receiving regional center designation, a regional center agrees to abide by the regulations governing the program, and verifies such compliance in their annual compliance report.
This annual report is submitted to and reviewed by the USCIS. Upon submitting the I-829 petition, requesting the lifting of conditional residency, the USCIS is also responsible for determining the legitimacy of the application.
As you can see, USCIS oversees the entire EB-5 process.
Therefore, it is imperative for you, as a sponsor or investor, to be well organized throughout the process right from the beginning. Please consider acquiring a large three ring binder with many transparency pages to contain all of your U.S. immigration documents and receipts.
You will receive many documents from your attorney and from the government; therefore it is essential that you maintain all records in a sensible and organized manner.
Keep a list of each and every document, receipt or instruction you receive as it is easy to get confused with the multitude of documents and legal complexities.
The other government agency that you, as an investor, will need to address is the U.S. State Department.
This agency will review the individual immigrant investor application and assess whether there is any basis for inadmissibility.
There are various reasons to support a rejection of the application which include but are not limited to: prior criminal record, fraud convictions, etc.
Thus, while an approval of the I-526 application is laudatory, it is not the final step until the State Department issues its sealed envelope of approval.
Following the State Department‟s approval, the investor and his or her family will physically enter the US and will be inspected at a port of entry.
This inspection is conducted by the Department of Homeland Security. An officer will review the approval notice and stamp, an approval called an I-551, to ensure and date the formal entry into the U.S.
Once the new resident has been admitted, he or she will undertake all normal internal applications with which a U.S. resident must comply. These include but are not limited to acquiring: a U.S. social security number from the Social Security Administration, a driver‟s license from the Department of Motor Vehicles of the State in which he or she will live with his or her family, and we also recommend a state identification document.
We are often asked for this. All wants to know what the best USA visa for their is. The answer is always the same: It depends!
Are you coming to the U.S. just to visit on holidays? Do you want to attend school here? Work here? Do you have family here? These are all things that can affect which visa you should be applying for.
Of course, you can always consult with our experienced immigration attorneys and we are happy to help you determine which visa is best for you –New Jersey Immigration lawyers or New York Federal Deportation Lawyer
We have also put together the following guide, which gives an idea about the various visas and which one might be best for you.First of all, though, it’s important to know the 3 general visa categories.
Nonimmigrant isas are temporary and may include various temporary work, study and holiday isas, all of which offer the opportunity to stay in the US for a few years.
The essential thing to know about nonimmigrant visas is that they are reserved specifically for those who don’t intend to try to immigrate or remain in the US. Most of these visas require applicants to prove that they will stay in the country only temporarily— for example, by maintaining a permanent residence in their home country.
Visa types that fall into the nonimmigrant visa category include the B-i visa for individuals wanting to temporarily enter the US for business purposes, the B-2 visa for those wishing to come to the US for tourism, pleasure or medical treatment, the M and F isas for students wishing to study at a US academic institution and the J visa for those wishing to do an educational exchange in the US.
Immigrant Visas. Immigrant visas are for those wiio wish to legally immigrate to the United States, meaning they want to live and work in the country permanently. The requirements for immigrant visas are generally the most stringent— and will require the greatest amount of time and paperwork.
There are various routes to permanent residency (a green card) in the US. These visas most often require sponsorship, either by an immediate family member (like a spouse or fiance(e), parent, brother or sister) or by an employer.
An exception to the sponsorship requirement is offered by the Diversity Immigrant Visa Program, which provides visas to residents of countries with low rates of immigration to the US without requiring a sponsor. Special immigrant visas are also available for certain religious workers and adopted children, among others.
Dual-Intent Visas. Dual-intent visas are interesting because though they are technically not an immigrant visa, they waive the major requirement of nonimmigrant isas: proving you do not plan to remain in the US. Dual intent basically means that the visa holder does intend to immigrate at some point in the future, although he or she currently wishes to maintain nonimmigrant status in the US.
Visa types that fall into the dual-intent visa category include the H-iB visa for specially* occupations, such as academics or physicians, and the L-i visa, which is designated for intra-company transfers. Note that the L-i visa is specifically designated for employees who are in an executive, managerial or othenvise specialized role in the company. Dual intent also extends to H-4 and L-2 dependents of H-i and L-i visa holders.
Under the U.S. Immigration law, U.S. Visas allow entry into and travel within the country. The two main types of visas issued to individuals seeking to relocate to the United States permanently are:
– Non-immigrant visas, for visitors traveling to the U.S. for a specific time. If an alien from another country wants to enter the U.S. temporarily, he or she must apply for a non-immigrant visa.
– Immigrant visas, for those who wish to live permanently in the United States.
The U.S. Department of State (DOS) manages consulates and embassies around the world, where applicants must start their application process.
More precisely, a U.S. Visa is an official authorization that is attached to the passport, which permits entry into the country and travel within it. Citizens of a foreign country who seek to enter the U.S. for a short period must comply with U.S. visa immigration law and specific procedures to apply for a non-immigrant visa. Usually, the application process has to be done in the country where the applicant resides, at a consulate or embassy.
If the applicant has criminal conviction, he/she may be found inadmissible under criminal and immigration laws.
There are different types of non-immigrant visas, which are classified by the reason the visitor is seeking to enter the U.S. These include:
– foreign government officials
– visitors for business and for pleasure
– aliens in transit through the United States
– treaty traders and investors
– international representatives
– temporary workers and trainees
– representatives of foreign information media
– exchange visitors
– fiancés of U.S. citizens
– intracompany transferees
– NATO officials
– religious workers, etc.
Most non-immigrants can be accompanied or joined by spouses and unmarried child under 21 years old, or dependent, children. In general, students and business people are among the majority.
Each non-immigrant visa is given an expiration date according to what the law allows.
As for immigrant visas, a person who wishes to immigrate to the United States must have a petition approved by the USCIS before applying for an immigrant visa. The petition is generally filed either by qualified relative or a potential employer at a USCIS office in the United States. Types of immigrant visas are:
The individual completing and executing THE AFFIDAVIT OF SUPPORT Form is called a “sponsor.” To qualify as a sponsor the individual must be (i) be age 18 or older, (ii) a U.S. citizen or national, or a lawful permanent resident of the United States, and (iii) live in, hold domicile, in the United States, Washington D.C. , or a U.S. territory or possession.
Additionally, the sponsor must be:
– The individual who executed/filed Form I-130 immigration petition, “Petition for Alien Relative” on behalf of the individual seeking permanent resident status.
– The individual who executed/filed Form I-129F, “Petition for Alien Fiancé(e)” on behalf of the foreign national fiancé(e).
– The petitioner of Form I-140, “Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker”, where the petitioner or petitioning company s owner(s) is a relative of the beneficiary and the relative owns 5% or more of the company.
– The parent(s) adopting an orphan.
An additional person if the original “sponsor” does not meet the financial requirements. Such an individual is called a “joint sponsor.” Where necessary, more than one joint sponsor may be used, however each individual must personally qualify as a “sponsor.” Each joint sponsor is “jointly and severally liable” on the affidavit for any criminal or immigration violation of the immigrant.
What are the Financial Requirements the “Sponsor” Must Meet?
The sponsor must have an income or assets or a combination thereof that meets at least 125% of the stated poverty guidelines. In deference to the sacrifices made by our U.S. armed forces, sponsors on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces need only meet 100% of the stated poverty guidelines. Moreover, all household members of the sponsor are considered when determining whether the sponsor meets the poverty guidelines. Under this provision, members of the household may even include individuals whom the sponsor does not directly support. The following persons are considered household members of the sponsor:
– Individuals related, by blood, marriage or adoption, to the sponsor, such as a spouse and all children. “Children” are considered as persons under age 21, irrespective of parental custody.
– Parent(s) of the sponsor are also included in this determination if residing with the sponsor.
– Any other person listed as a dependent on the sponsor s IRS income tax return.
– Any person for whom the sponsor has previously executed an AFFIDAVIT OF SUPPORT.
You must not be subject to any deportation proceeding.
Considerations: When you qualify for a Temporary Specialty Worker Visa, your spouse and unmarried children under age 21 can obtain visas simply by providing proof of their family relationship to you. Your family members can stay in the U.S. legally.
Within each family and employment preference, the INA further allocates the number of LPRs issued visas each year.
The family preferences are based upon the closeness of the family relationship to U.S. citizens and LPRs.
The employment preferences are based upon the professional accomplishments and skills needed by U.S. employers.
As Table 1 summarizes the legal immigration preference system, the complexity of the allocations becomes apparent.
Note that in most instances unused visa numbers are allowed to roll down to the next preference category.
Employment-based visa allocations not used in a given year roll-over to the family preference categories the following year, and vice versa.
Table 1. Legal Immigration Preference System Category Numerical limit Total Family-Sponsored Immigrants Immediate relatives Aliens who are the spouses and unmarried minor children of U.S. citizens and the parents of adult U.S. citizens Family-sponsored Preference Immigrants 1st preference Unmarried sons and daughters of citizens 2nd preference (A) Spouses and minor children of LPRs (B) Unmarried sons and daughters of LPRs 3rd preference Married sons and daughters of citizens 4th preference Siblings of citizens age 21 and over Employment-Based Preference Immigrants.
2nd preference 3rd preference— skilled 3rd preference— “other” 4th preference 5th preference
Priority workers: persons of extraordinary ability in the arts, science, education, business, or athletics; outstanding professors and researchers; and certain multi-national executives and managers Members of the professions holding advanced degrees or persons of exceptional abilities in the sciences, art, or business
Skilled shortage workers with at least two years training or experience, professionals with baccalaureate degrees Unskilled shortage workers”Special immigrants,” including ministers of religion, religious workers other than ministers, certain employees of the U.S. government abroad, and others Employment creation investors who invest at least $1 million (amount may vary in rural areas or areas of high unemployment) which will create at least 10 new jobs 480,000 Unlimited
This provision states that the employment 3rd preference “other workers” category is to be reduced by up to 5,000 annually for as long as necessary to offset adjustments under NACARA.
As part of the Immigration Act of 1990, Congress added a fifth preference category for foreign investors to become LPRs. The INA allocates up to10,000 admissions annually and generally requires a minimum $1 million investment and employment of at least 10 U.S. workers.
Less capital is required for aliens who participate in the immigrant investor pilot program, in which they invest in targeted regions and existing enterprises that are financially troubled.16 Employers who seek to hire prospective employment-based immigrants through the second and third preference categories also must petition the U.S.
Department of Labor (DOL) on behalf of the alien.
The prospective immigrant must demonstrate that he or she meets the qualifications for the particular job as well as the preference category. If DOL determines that a labor shortage exists in the occupation for which the petition is filed, labor certification will be issued.
If there is not a labor shortage in the given occupation, the employer must submit evidence of extensive recruitment efforts in order to obtain certification.